Image Nottingham Vet School, Flickr
Also known as 'dermatophytosis' (pronounced der-mato-ptosis), ringworm a common fungal infection which affects the skin, fur, and nails of cats. It is caused by a microscopic group of parasitic, fungal organisms known as dermatophytes (which means "plants that live on the skin").
Ringworm invades the dead, outer layers of the skin, claws, and hair. The name "ringworm" comes from the ring like, circular lesions which develop on the cat's skin. The fungus is more common in areas of high humidity and temperatures.
Ringworm is seen more often in young cats and in crowded conditions such as catteries and shelters, Persian and Himalayan cats appear to be more predisposed to the disease than other breeds which may suggest a genetic component.
Ringworm is a zoonotic disease, meaning that it can be passed on from cats to humans, many other species of animal are also able to catch and transmit ringworm. The fungus thrives the best in warm, humid environments.
|Severe ringworm on Devon Rex cat (click to enlarge).||Severe ringworm on Devon Rex cat (click to enlarge).|
Ringworm is found worldwide.
Yes, there are. In cats, there are three most common types of dermatophytes which may cause ringworm:
- Microsporum canis (M. canis): The source of this species of ringworm is almost always a cat and accounts for approximately 75-98% of ringworm seen in cats.
- Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum): This species of ringworm is usually from dogs and cats who dig in contaminated soil.
- Trichophyton mentagrophytes: This species infects dogs and cats when they are exposed to rodents or their burrows.
Ringworm is extremely contagious. A cat can become infected with ringworm by the following ways:
- Direct contact: With an infected animal. This may include grooming, rubbing against each other, sleeping together.
- Indirect contact: Humans clothing and hands who have been in contact with an infected animal.
- Environment, such as contaminated bedding, grooming equipment, cat carriers, carpet, furniture, air vent filters, and soil. The spores are attached to the hairs, which are shed into the environment and can remain infective for up to 18 months.
Most healthy adult cats have a natural resistance to the fungus.
The symptoms of ringworm typically appear two weeks after exposure.
- Skin and hair: The most recognisable sign that a cat is infected with ringworm is the presence circular patches of rough, scaly skin with a red outline and broken hairs or bald patches, small pustules may be located within the area of hair loss. It is found most often on the head, pinnae followed by the limbs and tail, however, any part of the body can be affected. Lesions may range from small and barely noticeable to severe, affecting large parts of the body. Ringworm may or may not be pruritic (itchy).
- Large areas of hair loss: May occur without characteristic rings, crusts or exudate.
- Claws: Infection of the claws may present as claws which are easily broken, flaky, crusted and malformed.
- Severe cases of ringworm may lead to folliculitis and/or secondary infection of the skin.
Up to 20 percent of cats are asymptomatic carriers. This means that they carry the fungus but show no signs of infection. Asymptomatic carriers are still able to pass ringworm on to other cats (as well as humans and dogs).
- Ringworm is more common in younger cats (under 12 months of age) and senior cats, (over 10 years old). Adults have had time to build up a natural immunity to the fungus, which makes them more resistant to infection. Kittens are at greater risk of infection due to their immature immune systems and possibly because they are less efficient at grooming, and thus removing the fungal spores.
- Immunocompromised cats (such as those with feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, undergoing chemotherapy or on long-term steroids) are also more vulnerable to ringworm.
- Longhaired cats are more likely to have ringworm than short haired cats, possibly because the fungus can easily become trapped deeper within the fur. As has been stated above, Persian and Himalayan cats appear to be more predisposed to developing ringworm.
- Cats who are run down due to sickness or who are under-nourished, stressed and/or in crowded conditions such as animal shelters and catteries are at greater risk.
Image Nottingham Vet School, Flickr
Ringworm can not be diagnosed just by looking at the lesions as many other conditions can produce similar symptoms.
- Wood's lamp: A simple way to diagnose ringworm is to use an ultraviolet Wood's lamp (also known as a black light) on your cat, although only around 50% of ringworm strains will show up. The infected hair shafts will glow a fluorescent green when exposed to a Wood's lamp.
- Microscopic examination of hairs: For rapid diagnosis, your veterinarian may choose to perform a microscopic examination of the hairs for microscopic fungal spores. This method has its pros and cons. Spores are often difficult to see, so it is best performed by an experienced mycologist (a botanist who specialises in the study of fungi). If the sample taken has no spores, diagnosis may not be accurate.
- Fungal Culture: This is the best way to definitively diagnose ringworm. Your veterinarian may take some samples of your cat's hair, scales or crusts from lesions with a fresh toothbrush and grow them in a lab on a special dermatophyte culture that enhances fungal growth. The benefit of performing a fungal culture is that the lab will be able to diagnose the exact species of fungus. It will take around ten days to perform the culture. If one cat tests positive to ringworm, all cats (and other furred animals) in the household should also be tested with a fungal culture, even those not displaying symptoms.
- Biopsy: Sometimes, if the lesions look uncharacteristic, a biopsy will be performed.
Your veterinarian may also want to run additional tests to determine if your cat is suffering from an underlying medical condition which has made him more vulnerable to ringworm.
Once your cat has been diagnosed with ringworm, you will have to treat both the cat and the environment. If you live in a multiple cat household, all cats in your home will need to be treated. It is easier if you can keep all cats confined to just one room while treatment is underway to avoid spreading spores around the home.
Always use gloves when handling a cat with ringworm and change your clothes immediately afterwards. They should be washed in an anti-fungal rinse (available from the laundry aisle of your supermarket) to kill any spores you may have picked up.
Carefully follow instructions—either on the medication packet and or from your veterinarian—when treating your cat. In healthy cats, ringworm will often resolve itself in two to four months. However, it is recommended that you treat your cat for ringworm to speed up the process and prevent infection of humans and other pets.
It may be recommended that longhaired cats be shaved during treatment, this is because the fungus can become trapped in the long coat, making it harder to treat. Shorthaired cats don't need to be shaved unless the infection covers a large area of the body.
It can take several months to eliminate ringworm. All cats in the home should be treated, even those displaying no symptoms of ringworm.
The treatment of choice should include both oral treatment as well as topical dips or shampoos.
This oral drug has overtaken Griseofulvin in its use to treat ringworm as it has fewer side effects. It prevents the growth of the fungus by preventing it from producing ergosterol, a component of the cell membrane, causing the contents of the fungus to leak out.
Dosage: 10 mg per/kg once per day.
Side effects: Side effects are mild but may include nausea and loss of appetite.
This is the most commonly used anti-fungal drug and the only anti-fungal drug licensed for use in cats. Griseofulvin inhibits fungal cell wall division by altering the structure and function of the microtubules. This allows the cat's immune system to gain control and fight off the infection.
Systemic and topical treatments (listed below) are most effective when used concurrently.
Dosage: Griseofulvin comes in tablet form to be given orally. It is administered twice a day, with food, and it is preferable to feed a fatty meal.
Side effects/Precautions: Griseofulvin cannot be used in stud cats, pregnant queens, or females you are planning to breed within two months of treatment, as it can cause birth defects. Side effects include nausea, fever, lethargy, diarrhoea, anaemia. In rare cases, Griseofulvin can cause bone marrow suppression and liver disease in cats. If your cat becomes sick, seek veterinary attention immediately. Griseofulvin should not be given to cats with FIV. Pregnant women should not handle Griseofulvin.
Other drugs which may be used to treat ringworm include Ketoconazole (Nizoral®) and Terbinafine (Lamisil®). Speak to your veterinarian for further information.
Lime sulfur dips using an 8% concentration are the most effective. Sometimes, clipping the cat (especially longhaired cats) is recommended to increase the effectiveness of treatment and also decrease environmental contamination. The cat must not be allowed to lick its coat before it dries, as this can cause vomiting. Bathing should be done twice a week for approximately two to four weeks. Lime sulfur dips can cause yellowing of the coat; however, this will fade in time.
These are safe to use on pregnant cats and kittens over 2-3 weeks of age.
Ringworm Vaccine: There is a ringworm vaccine made by Fort Dodge called Fel-O-Vax® MC-K. This vaccine must be given to healthy cats over four months of age and is a course of three injections. This vaccine is only effective for M. canis. After an initial dose is administered, a second dose is given twelve to sixteen days later. A third dose is given twenty-six to thirty days after the second dose. Fel-O-Vax® MC-K is not available in all countries (Australia included), please check with your veterinarian on availability where you live.
Any concurrent skin disorders such as folliculitis or skin infection will need to be treated with antibiotics.
- Vacuum daily and if possible, throw out the vacuum cleaner bag. It is important to remove all cat hair from the environment. Vacuum under furniture, in corners. If you can't throw out the vacuum cleaner bag, or have a bagless vacuum, empty the barrel (preferably outside), and wipe it out with a bleach solution.
- Disinfecting all surfaces: Diluted bleach (1:10, one part bleach to ten parts water) should be used twice over 24 hours to clean down all surfaces including floors, walls, windows and ledges. Kennels will also need to be disinfected. Note: Bleach is inactivated by inorganic material such as dirt and feces, so mechanical cleaning (ie; with hot soapy water) is required to remove dirt before applying bleach.
- Steam cleaning: Carpets and soft furnishings should be steam cleaned. The temperature of the water should be at least 110F to kill the spores.
- Discard bedding and grooming equipment: If possible, if this is not possible, these products should be washed with an antifungal disinfectant.
- All vents should be vacuumed and disinfected. The best way to do this is with a spray bottle filled with 1:10 bleach solution. Air conditioner filters should be discarded and replaced.
Bleach can be aggravating to the skin and airways, use a mask, goggles, rubber gloves and keep windows open if possible.
Yes, it is possible for humans to catch ringworm from cats and vice versa. Children (especially under 10 years old) or adults who are in poor health, undergoing chemotherapy or have a weakened immune system, such as those with HIV, are more likely to become infected than healthy adults. Keep affected cats/children apart to avoid spreading the fungus.
It is also possible to pass on ringworm from humans to cats.
If you (or anybody in your household has ringworm), treatment with a suitable antifungal ointment or cream is necessary. This is usually applied 2-3 times a day to the affected area(s) for several weeks. Cover ringworm lesions with a plaster/band aid to avoid spreading the infection to other people and pets.
Bedding and towels should be washed regularly (using an antifungal rinse) and do not share towels with a person infected with ringworm.
A final note
Ringworm can be an incredibly frustrating infection to get rid of. Please remember that in most cases it is not life threatening. Avoidance is always better than cure, particularly with ringworm. Ways to reduce the chances of your cats catching ringworm include:
Isolate new cats for two weeks, not only to see if ringworm rears its head but also other contagious diseases. Bear in mind though that even if you have taken precautions, cats can be carriers. The photo above is my own daughter who developed ringworm around the same time we adopted a new kitten. The kitten didn't display any signs of ringworm himself, but was a probable source of the ringworm my daughter had. None of my other cats caught ringworm, sadly the kitten died shortly after his adoption from an unrelated condition.
Last updated 24th February 2017.