Nasopharyngeal polyps are benign growths that arise from the mucous membranes of the nose (nasal) or the base of the eustachian tube (nasopharyngeal). Nasopharyngeal polyps can extend into the middle ear, external ear, pharynx (cavity behind the mouth) and nasal cavity.
The exact cause isn't entirely understood but it is believed that they are the result of chronic inflammation or congenital (present at birth). Young cats are most commonly affected, with a mean age of 1.5 years.
What are the symptoms of nasal and nasopharyngeal polyps in cats?
Symptoms vary, depending on the location of the polyps but may include;
- Chronic nasal discharge.
- Rapid shallow breathing (tachypnea).
- Head tilt.
- Horner's syndrome (drooping of the eyelid, constricted pupil, sunken eye and appearance of the third eyelid).
- Otitis externa (inflammation of the skin on the outer ear).
- Ear infection.
- Head shaking.
How are they diagnosed?
Diagnosis is based on finding polyps. Your veterinarian will perform a physical examination and obtain a medical history from you. Polyps can sometimes be seen or felt during examination. This is performed under general anesthesia.
- Radiographs will reveal soft masses, increased density in the nasal cavity.
- CT scan can determine if the polyp extends into the middle ear.
- Rhinotomy will reveal masses and enable the veterinarian to biopsy material.
- Otoscopic examination.
- Biopsy of the removed tissue for a definitive diagnosis.
How are they treated?
Polyps at the back of the throat may be removed via the oral cavity by pulling with a slow and steady traction. Failure to remove all of the mass may result in regrowth.
Surgical removal of the polyps. If the polyps are within the bulla (middle ear), a bulla osteotomy will be necessary. This involves opening up the middle ear and removing the polyp(s).
- See more at: http://www.cat-world.com.au/nasal-a-nasopharyngeal-polyps-in-cats#sthash.3D5fyaFp.dpuf
|What is an abscess? How does an abscess occur? What are the symptoms of an abscess? How is an abscess diagnosed? What is the treatment for an abscess? Preventing an abscess|
An abscess is a localised pocket of pus usually due to a bacteria which have been injected under the skin, most commonly via a puncture wound.
An inflammatory response occurs, drawing huge amounts of white blood cells to the area and increasing regional blood flow. Pus forms, which is an accumulation of fluid, toxins, living and dead white blood cells, dead tissue and bacteria. This area begins to grow, creating tension under the skin and further inflammation of the surrounding tissues. As the abscess grows, the skin thins and weakens, eventually causing the abscess to rupture and the pus drains out.
An abscess can form in any part of the body including under the skin, in the mouth (dental abscess) and in organs such as the liver and pancreas. This article relates to abscesses under the skin. The most common bacteria involved are staphylococci and streptococci.
Image credit Nottingham Vet School
Most abscesses are caused by a puncture wound which introduces bacteria under the skin. The skin is remarkable in its ability to heal quickly, so the overlying skin heals from the puncture wound, the introduced bacteria remain trapped underneath the skin in a warm, moist environment.
The most common cause of a penetrating puncture leading to an abscess is from a cat bite, the oral cavity, including the teeth, harbour a great number of bacteria which are injected into the skin during penetration. Abscesses are seen more often in un-neutered male cats who are allowed to free roam as they are more territorial and therefore become involved in cat fights with neighbourhood cats. There is an increase in cats presenting with abscesses in spring as this is cat mating season.
Other causes of abscesses include scratches and any penetrating object such as a thorn, splinter, grass seed or glass shard.
Abscesses are most frequently found around the head, neck, limbs and back and base of the tail. Not all cats will display symptoms.
By the time you find the abscess, the skin may be sufficiently thin resulting in the abscess draining (this is known as 'pointing' and usually occurs when the abscess is close to the skin). If it has drained you may notice a thick, yellow and foul smelling discharge and a hole in the skin (see image). If the abscess is located deeper under the skin, you may notice an indentation (or a 'pit') when pressure is applied to the area of swelling.
Other common symptoms of an abscess include:
- Hot, swollen and painful area, possibly red and/or with missing fur
- Loss of appetite
- Lethargy - Sleeping more, reluctance to play or go outside
- Lameness - Limping, reluctance to bear weight on affected limb
- Listlessness - Can't seem to settle, loss of interest in activities he usually enjoys
- Hunched over appearance
- If the abscess bursts, you may notice oozing and a foul smelling odour from the affected area
An abscess isn't always visible, especially as the coat may hide the wound, so if your cat is acting off colour, appears to be in pain or displays any other symptoms above, it is advisable to seek veterinary advice.
Most abscesses can be diagnosed during a physical examination.
Your veterinarian may take a sample of the discharge and culture it to determine the bacteria involved so that he can prescribe the best antibiotic for that particular bacteria.
He may also recommend a FeLV (feline leukemia) and FIV (feline AIDS) blood test to rule out infection which is more common in outdoor entire cats who fight.